Skip to main content

Early GCase activity is a predictor of long-term cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease

Dementia is a serious complication for many patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its incidence is increased in PD patients harbouring a mutation in GBA1 [1]. However, cognitive impairment is not limited to late disease stages and can also manifest in patients with early untreated disease, leading to diminished social function and increased disability and caregiver burden. We have previously shown that reduced activity of the GBA1 protein product, the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase), is linked with long-term progression to PD dementia [2]. In this study, we extend this by determining the association of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) GCase activity with the development of cognitive impairment through the analysis of neuropsychological test data collected over 10 years of prospective follow-up of patients with incident PD.

A total of 117 patients from the Norwegian ParkWest study [3] with GCase activity measured in CSF samples taken at the time of PD diagnosis (median delay, 38 days) [4] were included in the study (Additional file 1: Table S1). Neuropsychological testing assessed functions in four cognitive domains: attention, executive function, verbal learning and memory, and visuospatial skills. A score for each domain was calculated by taking the average of the test scores after conversion into the Percent of Maximum Possible scores as described in Additional file 2: Methods.

To assess the association of reduced baseline GCase activity with the change in cognitive function over the first 10 years of PD (median follow-up, 9.0 years [interquartile range, 1.0]), we applied linear mixed-effects models. The patients were stratified into tertiles based on the level of CSF GCase activity and those with the highest activity (> 1.12 mU/mg) were compared to the group with medium (0.80–1.12 mU/mg) or low GCase activity (< 0.80 mU/mg). At the time of PD diagnosis, there was no significant difference in the MMSE scores across the three GCase activity groups (Fig. 1a; Additional file 1: Table S2). However, both the medium (β =  − 1.58 transformed points; 95% confidence interval [CI] − 2.91 to − 0.25, P = 0.022) and the low GCase activity groups (β =  − 2.26 transformed points; 95%CI − 3.59 to − 0.94, P = 0.001) were predicted to experience a faster annual decline in MMSE score, compared to the high activity group. Over the 10 years of the study, patients in the high GCase activity group were not predicted to experience a significant decline in MMSE score (P = 0.159), whereas those in the medium- or low-activity group were estimated to decline from about 29 to 26 or to 24 MMSE points, respectively.

Fig. 1
figure 1

Prediction of changes of scores measuring cognitive impairment over time. Patients (n = 117) were grouped by GCase activity level (high, medium, and low). a MMSE scores, and POMP scores for b attention, c executive function, d memory, and e visuospatial skills. MMSE scores were transformed before plotting as described in the Methods. *Significant difference from the high GCase activity group (P < 0.05). POMP percent of maximum possible

At the baseline visit, there was no significant difference in the performance in tests assessing attention, executive function, verbal learning and memory, or visuospatial skills between the GCase activity groups (Additional file 1: Table S2). Assessment of the annual change in performance in individual cognitive domains showed that the low activity group was predicted to decline faster in scores of attention (β =  − 0.92; 95%CI − 1.58 to − 0.28, P = 0.006), executive function (β =  − 0.61; 95%CI − 1.20 to − 0.03, P = 0.042), memory (β =  − 1.60, 95%CI − 2.63 to − 0.58, P = 0.003), and visuospatial skills (β = − 0.84 transformed points, 95%CI − 1.63 to − 0.06, P = 0.038) (Fig. 1b–e; Additional file 1: Table S2). However, the group with the medium level of GCase activity only declined significantly faster than the high activity group in measures of attention (β =  − 0.95; 95%CI − 1.60 to − 0.30; P = 0.005), and for the other three cognitive domains studied the difference in the annual rate of change was not significant (all P > 0.05). The results were largely unchanged when the analysis was repeated including only the 105 PD patients without GBA1 mutations (Additional file 2: Methods and Additional file 1: Fig. S1 and Table S2). Specifically, we found that the size of the effect and significance of the association of GCase activity status with the decline in cognitive function remained comparable apart from the scores for executive function, for which there was no significant difference in the annual decline between the high and the low activity groups (P = 0.086).

In the brains of patients with PD, GCase dysfunction is paralleled by α-synuclein accumulation [5, 6]. The mild negative correlation between α-synuclein pathology and GCase activity may be involved in the increased cognitive decline observed in the patients with the lowest GCase activity in this study. However, how GCase dysfunction influences PD pathology (and vice versa) is unclear. Most GBA1 mutation carriers do not develop PD [7, 8], suggesting that the relationship is not causative. Recent findings from animal and cell models support that lower GCase activity levels do not initiate α-synuclein aggregation, but promote α-synuclein aggregation depending on the physiological state of the extant α-synuclein [9, 10], and factors beyond GCase depletion play a role in influencing the incidence of the disease.

GCase is a promising target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders caused by the progressive aggregation of α-synuclein. A key challenge in developing these therapies is identifying a defined testing window where such interventions would have a maximum impact. At the time of PD diagnosis, the patients in the three GCase activity groups had comparable performance and those patients in the low activity group who were cognitively intact could represent a high-risk population to test GCase-targeting and neuroprotective therapies. Crucially, this could provide a means by which to recruit patients from the idiopathic PD population (i.e., those without a GBA1 mutation) to pivotal clinical trials that might otherwise prioritise GBA1-PD patients.

We have recently shown that the GCase dysfunction at the time of PD diagnosis is linked to an increased risk of later development of dementia [2]. Although dementia is an important milestone in a clinical setting, it is less suitable as an outcome in clinical trials for modification of cognitive decline as dementia often requires many years of follow-up and/or very large cohorts to capture a meaningful number of events. For trial design, this is compounded as dementia is commonly a late-stage event, and potentially disease-modifying drugs are thought to be most effective when initiated early in the disease course. By contrast, cognitive decline is a gradual process that starts early in a substantial subset of patients and is frequently included as an outcome in PD clinical trials. Therefore, we performed a power calculation to estimate the predicted benefit (concerning trial size) of limiting enrolment to a clinical trial to patients in the lowest tertile of GCase activity, compared to a design in which all newly diagnosed patients are eligible for trial inclusion (an “all-comer” design) (Additional file 2: Methods). The trial was for a hypothetical therapeutic agent that stopped the decline of total MMSE score. We found that enriching a three-year trial for patients with low GCase activity reduced the required sample size for the trial by 2.5-fold compared with an equally powered trial without. In one example, a trial designed to have 80% power to observe the primary outcome would necessitate the recruitment of 658 “all-comers” with early PD, whereas only 266 low-GCase-activity participants would be needed for the same power (Additional file 1: Fig. S2).

Our study had some limitations. We did not account for anxiety or depression, which can affect performance in cognitive test batteries and have been linked to GBA1 in other populations. Further, we did not account for other pathological changes such as co-morbid Alzheimer’s disease and neuroinflammation, which are reported risk factors for cognitive impairment in PD [11]. Our study had also several strengths, including the recruitment of incident, unselected patients that are representative of the PD population of the region, the analysis of CSF samples collected at the time of initial clinical diagnosis, the long follow-up time with repeated batteries of the same neuropsychological tests, and low attrition rates.

In conclusion, we found that low CSF GCase activity at the time of initial diagnosis is linked to a faster annual decline in clinical scales measuring global cognition and specific cognitive domains over the first 10 years of PD. The link between GCase dysfunction and disease progression provides insight into the pathogenesis of the disease and novel perspectives for GCase-targeted therapies to prevent neurodegeneration, and could provide a valuable biomarker to identify patients at risk of more severe disease.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used during the current study are not publicly available due to the condition of the study’s ethical approvals but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.



Confidence interval




Minimal-Mental State Examinations


Parkinson’s disease


  1. Liu G, Peng J, Liao Z, Locascio JJ, Corvol JC, Zhu F, et al. Genome-wide survival study identifies a novel synaptic locus and polygenic score for cognitive progression in Parkinson’s disease. Nat Genet. 2021;53(6):787–93.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. Oftedal L, Maple-Grodem J, Dalen I, Tysnes OB, Pedersen KF, Alves G, et al. Association of CSF glucocerebrosidase activity with the risk of incident dementia in patients with Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2023;100(4):e388–95.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  3. Alves G, Muller B, Herlofson K, HogenEsch I, Telstad W, Aarsland D, et al. Incidence of Parkinson’s disease in Norway: the Norwegian ParkWest study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80(8):851–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Oftedal L, Maple-Grodem J, Forland MGG, Alves G, Lange J. Validation and assessment of preanalytical factors of a fluorometric in vitro assay for glucocerebrosidase activity in human cerebrospinal fluid. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):22098.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. Murphy KE, Gysbers AM, Abbott SK, Tayebi N, Kim WS, Sidransky E, et al. Reduced glucocerebrosidase is associated with increased alpha-synuclein in sporadic Parkinson’s disease. Brain. 2014;137(Pt 3):834–48.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. Munoz SS, Petersen D, Marlet FR, Kucukkose E, Galvagnion C. The interplay between Glucocerebrosidase, alpha-synuclein and lipids in human models of Parkinson’s disease. Biophys Chem. 2021;273:106534.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Alcalay RN, Dinur T, Quinn T, Sakanaka K, Levy O, Waters C, et al. Comparison of Parkinson risk in Ashkenazi Jewish patients with Gaucher disease and GBA heterozygotes. JAMA Neurol. 2014;71(6):752–7.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. Anheim M, Elbaz A, Lesage S, Durr A, Condroyer C, Viallet F, et al. Penetrance of Parkinson disease in glucocerebrosidase gene mutation carriers. Neurology. 2012;78(6):417–20.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Henderson MX, Sedor S, McGeary I, Cornblath EJ, Peng C, Riddle DM, et al. Glucocerebrosidase activity modulates neuronal susceptibility to pathological alpha-synuclein insult. Neuron. 2020;105(5):822–36.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Fredriksen K, Aivazidis S, Sharma K, Burbidge KJ, Pitcairn C, Zunke F, et al. Pathological alpha-syn aggregation is mediated by glycosphingolipid chain length and the physiological state of alpha-syn in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021;118(50):e2108489118.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. Ryman SG, Yutsis M, Tian L, Henderson VW, Montine TJ, Salmon DP, et al. Cognition at each stage of Lewy body disease with co-occurring Alzheimer’s disease pathology. J Alzheimers Dis. 2021;80(3):1243–56.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references


We are grateful to the participants of our study for their contributions and all the members of the Norwegian ParkWest study group and other personnel involved in the study.


This work was supported by the Research Council of Norway (287842), the Norwegian Parkinson’s Research Foundation, and the Norwegian Health Association (16152). The Norwegian ParkWest study has received funding from the Research Council of Norway (177966), the Western Norway Regional Health Authority (911218), the Norwegian Parkinson’s Research Foundation, and Rebergs Legacy. LO, JMG and GA are supported by the Research Council of Norway (287842). JMG and JL are supported by the Norwegian Health Association (16152).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



LO performed the enzymatic activity assays and was a major contributor in writing the manuscript. JL designed the study, prepared the samples, and was a major contributor in writing the manuscript. KFP, O-BT and GA played a major role in the collection, preparation and interpretation of clinical data. AHE contributed to the design of the study and was a major contributor in writing the manuscript. ID performed the statistical analyses. JMG designed the study, performed the statistical analyses, and prepared the first draft of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jodi Maple-Grødem.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The study was approved by the Western Norway Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics and all subjects signed written informed consent.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary Information

Additional file 1: Table S1.

Cohort overview and GCase activity at baseline. Table S2. Relationship between GCase activity status and predicted annual change in scores in tests measuring cognitive function estimated using linear mixed models. Fig. S1. Prediction of scores measuring cognitive impairment over time. Fig. S2. Reduced trial size in GCase-targeted clinical trials compared to a traditional “all-comer” design.

Additional file 2: Methods.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Oftedal, L., Lange, J., Pedersen, K.F. et al. Early GCase activity is a predictor of long-term cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease. Transl Neurodegener 12, 41 (2023).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: