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Table 2 Physical exercise alters the levels of proteins related with neurodegeneration

From: Roles of physical exercise in neurodegeneration: reversal of epigenetic clock



Intervention (duration/speed)


Ma et al. [129]

Adult male Wister rats with transient focal cerebral ischemia

Treadmill training: 3 days, 7 days, and 2 weeks, respectively, 12 m/min for 30 min each day, 5 days a week

Reduce the overexpression of TLR-2, TLR-4, NF-κB and MyD88 in rat brain tissues

Herring et al. [87]

210-day-old female TgCRND8 mice

Running wheels: 5 months

Reduce Aβ plaque burden and enhanced Aβ clearance

Tapia-Rojas et al. [88]

APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice

Voluntary wheel running: 10 weeks

Decrease Aβ burden and Aβ oligomers in the hippocampus

Luo et al. [98]

Male Sprague–Dawley rats (16–18 months old)

Swimming exercise: 30 min per day, 5 days per week, 10 weeks

Upregulate the mRNA expressions of Parkin

Alkadhi and Dao [89]

7-week-old male Wistar rats: 2 weeks of Aβ infusion (250 pmol/day)

Treadmill exercise: 10–15 m/min, 4 weeks

Prevent the increase in the levels of APP, BACE1 and Aβ proteins in both the CA1 and DG areas

Daniele et al. [96]

Endurance athletes (mean age 41.4 ± 13.7 years)

Endurance athletes

Reduce the levels of total and oligomeric α-synuclein

Jessop and Toledo-Rodriguez [100]

C57BL/J6 male (3 months and 18 months old) mice

Running wheel: 4 weeks

Restore the age-related decrease in hippocampal Tet1 and Tet2 expression

Wu et al. [120]

Sporadic AD rat model

Swimming exercise: 4 weeks

Induce the DNA-binding activity of Nrf2 and expression of downstream antioxidant gene Sod2 in the hippocampal CA1 region

El Hayek et al. [80]

Adult male C57BL/6 mice

Voluntary running wheel: 30 days

Increase Bdnf expression

Lourenco et al. [147]

AD model mice

Swimming exercise: 60 min per session, 5 days per week for 5 weeks

FNDC5/irisin mediates the protective effects of PE on synaptic plasticity and memory defects in AD

Just-Borras et al. [154]

ALS model mice

Treadmill training, swimming training: 30 min a day, 5 days a week, from 70 until 115 days of age

Maintain the BDNF/TrkB signaling at the neuromuscular junction

  1. amyloid protein, ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, DG dentate gyrus, FNDC5 fibronectin type III domain-containing 5/irisin, MyD88 myeloid differentiation 88, NF-κB nuclear factor-kappa B, Nrf2 nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, PE physical exercise, PS1 presenilin 1, TLR-2 toll-like receptor 2, TLR-4 toll-like receptor 4, TrkB tyrosine receptor kinase B