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Fig. 6 | Translational Neurodegeneration

Fig. 6

From: Alpha-synuclein overexpression in the olfactory bulb initiates prodromal symptoms and pathology of Parkinson’s disease

Fig. 6

Rats injected with the AAV-hm-α-syn exhibit progressive impairment in odor discrimination and motor behaviors. a Animals were exposed to the 10− 8 rose odor for consecutive trials (habituation) and then exposed to increasing concentrations of lemon in mineral oil (10− 12, 10–10, or 10− 8 unit) for three consecutive trials (dishabituation) to test the response threshold after the AAV injection. # means a significant difference (p < 0.05) contrasted with the last test in the habituation (oil 3). b Results of the odor habituation/dishabituation test. After the habituation trials for sniffing rose odor, rats showed impaired odor habituation/dishabituation behavior 3 weeks after AAV-hm-α-syn injection than control. Also, 6, 9 and 12 weeks after the AAV-hm-α-syn injection (c and d) in the OB, locomotion in the open field was reduced. The number of times crossing the line and the total distance traveled were lower 6 weeks after the AAV-hm-α-syn injection. The rod test showed that 12 weeks after AAV hm-α-Syn injection in the OB, the rats had decreased the amount of time they stayed on the rod relative to control treatment. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01. e. Latency time 12 weeks after AAV injection of OB (n = 8/group). The values are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD)

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