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Table 2 Stem cells-based therapies for AD

From: Direct reprogramming of induced neural progenitors: a new promising strategy for AD treatment

Stem cell types Sources Advantages for clinical treatment Limitations
ESCs Blastocyst Low immunogenicity Ethical issues
High capacity of pluripotency Difficult to get enough cells
NSCs Fetal brain Low immunogenicity Immune rejection
Capacity of Aβ reduction Ethical issues
Low tumorigenicity Difficult to get enough cells
MSCs Bone marrow Low immunogenicity Low differentiated efficacy into neurons
Human umbilical cord blood No ethical issues Injure patients to harvest BM-MSCs
Capacity of Aβ reduction Very limited source of hUCB-MSCs
Immune modulation
iPSCs Somatic cells No immunogenicity Tumorigenicity
No ethical issue Low reprogramming efficacy
High capacity of pluripotency Low differentiation efficacy into specific neurons
iNPCs Somatic cells No immunogenicity Low reprogramming efficacy
No ethical issue  
Abilities to differentiate into region- and subtypes-specific neurons
Direct reprogramming in vivo is simpler, quicker, safer, and harmless, as well as avoiding challenges of transplanted cells.