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Table 4 Study characteristics of clinical trials on human Parkinson’s disease

From: The effects of exercise on cognition in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review

Authors Study title Subjects Intervention Study design
Studies that specifically measured executive function (n = 4)
McKee et al. 2013 [29] The Effects of Adapted Tango on Spatial Cognition and Disease Severity in Parkinson’s Disease Total n = 33 PD • Tango or education lessons Randomized controlled trial
• n = 15 tango • Sessions 90 minutes long, 20 sessions over 12 weeks, follow-up after 10–12 weeks
• n = 13 control
Cruise et al. 2011 [26] Exercise and Parkinson's: benefits for cognition and quality of life Total n = 28 PD • Moderate-to-high-intensity anabolic and aerobic exercise or usual care Single-blind randomized controlled trial
• n = 15 exercise
• n = 13 control • Sessions 1 hr/day, 2x/week for 12 weeks
Ridgel et al. 2011 [28] Changes in executive function after acute bouts of passive cycling in Parkinson's disease Total n = 19 PD • Low-intensity passive aerobic exercise (cycling) Randomized controlled trial, cross-over
• Sessions 1/week for 4 weeks
Tanaka et al. 2009 [27] Benefits of physical exercise on executive functions in older people with Parkinson's disease Total n = 20 PD • Moderate-intensity multimodal exercise training (aerobic, resistance, coordination and balance) or usual care Controlled trial*
• n = 10 exercise
• n = 10 control
• Sessions 1 hr/day, 3x/week for 24 weeks, intensity increased every 4 weeks
Studies that measured unspecified aspects of cognition (n = 4)
Dos Santos Mendes et al. 2012 [25] Motor learning, retention and transfer after virtual-reality-based training in Parkinson's disease - effect of motor and cognitive demands of games: a longitudinal, controlled clinical study Total n = 27 • Low-intensity Wii FitTM training, involving motor shifts and cognitive skills Longitudinal pre-post trial
• n = 16 PD
• n = 11 healthy control • Sessions 1 hr/day, 2x/week for 7 weeks, follow-up at 60 days
Pompeu et al. 2012 [24] Effect of Nintendo WiiTM-based motor and cognitive training on activities of daily living in patients with Parkinson's disease: A randomised clinical trial Total n = 32 PD • Both groups: low-intensity stretching, strengthening Single-blind randomized controlled trial
• n = 16 exercise & Wii
• Experimental group: Wii FitTM -based motor/cognitive training
• n = 16 exercise no Wii
Control group: balance exercises without feedback or cognitive stimulation
• Sessions 1 hr/day, 2x/wk for 7 weeks, follow-up at 60 days
Müller et al. 2010 [23] Effect of exercise on reactivity and motor behaviour in patients with Parkinson's disease Total n = 22 PD • Single bout of high-intensity endurance aerobic exercise (heart rate-targeted cycling) or rest following L-dopa administration Randomized controlled feasibility trial, cross-over
• Randomized order 1 day apart
Baatile et al. 2000 [22] Effect of exercise on perceived quality of life of individuals with Parkinson's disease Total n = 6 PD • Low-intensity aerobic exercise program with Nordic walking poles (PoleStriding) Nonrandomized feasibility trial, no control
• Sessions 3x/week for 8 weeks
  1. *Subjects were assigned into the training group based on previous participation as a control in another study and upon referral by their physician. Baseline characteristics did not differ between the groups.