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Table 1 Demographics and clinical characteristics, CSF and plasma biomarker concentrations in CN, FTD and AD groups

From: Plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurofilament light chain for the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of frontotemporal dementia

  CN FTD AD
bvFTD nfvPPA svPPA PSP-CBD All FTD
n 83 33 14 7 18 72 56
Age, years 58 (8.5)b,c 68.3 (10.6)a 72.8 (5.6)a 73.1 (11.1)a 72.9 (5.4)a 70.8 (8.9)a 70.8 (7.2)a
Sex        
 Female 49 10 9 4 11 34 31
 Male 34 23 5 3 7 38 25
APOE ε4 status        
 ε4+ 23c 3c 3c 2c 2c 10c 27a,b,dg
 ε4− 57c 29c 11c 5c 14c 59c 27a,b,dg
Follow up time, years 3.9 (1.7) 4.1 (2.5) 3.1 (2.3) 4.8 (1.7) 1.9 (1) 3.4 (2.3) 4 (2)
Education, years 15.4 (4.1)b−g 12.9 (5.6)a 13.3 (4.9)a 14.8 (5.2)a 11.3 (3.7)a 12.7 (5)a 10.4 (4.7)a
Baseline MMSE score 29.2 (1)b−g 25.1 (4.2)a,f 24.1 (6.8)a,f 16.5 (12.2)a,ce,g 22.6 (6.3)a,f 23.5 (6.5)a 23.7 (3.8)a
Last MMSE score 29.3 (1)b−g 16.6 (10)a,f 14 (12.2)a,f 0.4 (0.9)a,ce,g 11.6 (12.4)a 13.3 (11.4)a 15.5 (9.5)a
pGFAP, pg/ml 134.3 (45.4)b−d,f−g 193.1 (100.1)a 224.6 (77.2) 159.3 (279.1)a 271.2 (148.2)a 234.9 (141.9)a,b 319.8 (135.1)a,c
pNfL, pg/ml 18 (20.2)be,g 41.9 (60.1)a 34.9 (17.2)a 31.3 (14.5) 34.3 (18.1)a 37.6 (42.3)a 26.5 (13.3)a
CSF NfL, pg/ml 494.8 (274.3)b,c,f,g 1436.3 (930.6)a 1944.5 (1146.7) 2394.6 (637.8)a 1739.3 (1607.3)a 1654.1 (1187.6)a,c 1286.4 (1136.9)a,b,f
CSF YKL-40, ng/ml 190.3 (49.4)b,c 265.8 (64.7)a 274.84 (61)a 311.8 (37.1)a 262.3 (79.3) 268.2 (63.7)a 287.3 (68.1)a
CSF Aβ42/Aβ40 0.099 (0.016)c 0.098 (0.015)c 0.092 (0.012)c 0.103 (0.0002)c 0.095 (0.012)c 0.097 (0.013)c 0.046 (0.0099)a,b,dg
CSF tTau, pg/ml 264 (103.9)c 388.9 (182.3)c 275.4 (144.5)c 367.5 (0.7) 276.1 (122.7)c 332.7 (162)c 774.2 (390.8)a,b,d,f,g
CSF pTau, pg/ml 39.8 (17.8)c 45.7 (16.1)c 42.8 (21.9)c 47.2 (10) 33.9 (15)c 42.1 (16.4)c 121.2 (71)a,b,d,f,g
  1. MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; pGFAP, plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein; pNfL, plasma neurofilament light chain; CN, cognitivelly normal participants; FTD, Frontotemporal dementia; AD, Alzheimer disease; bvFTD, behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia; nfvPPA, nonfluent variant of primary progressive aphasia; svPPA, semantic variante of primary progressive aphasia; PSP-CBD, progressive supranuclear palsy-corticobasal syndrome spectrum
  2. aDifferent from Control (P < 0.05)
  3. bDifferent from FTD (P < 0.05)
  4. cDifferent from AD (P < 0.05)
  5. dDifferent from bvFTD (P < 0.05)
  6. eDifferent from fnvPPA (P < 0.05)
  7. fDifferent from svPPA (P < 0.05)
  8. gDifferent from PSP-CBD (P < 0.05). Data are shown as mean (standard deviation)