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Table 4 Localization and change of lipopolysaccharides in Alzheimer’s disease

From: Gram-negative bacteria and their lipopolysaccharides in Alzheimer’s disease: pathologic roles and therapeutic implications

Source Subject Method Main findings References
Brain AD patients Immunoblot LPS was detected in the area adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the parietal lobe of AD brain [38]
AD patients WB
IHC
LPS was detected in temporal lobe neocortex perinuclear region of AD brain
LPS was co-localized with Aβ plaque
[125]
AD patients IF
WB
LPS was detected in superior temporal gyrus gray matter, frontal lobe white matter, and periventricular white matter of AD brain
LPS was localized with Aβ plaque, neurons, microglia, and oligodendrocytes
[15]
AD patients IHC LPS was detected in superior temporal lobe neocortex of AD brain
LPS was localized in neurons
[124]
AD patients WB LPS was detected in temporal lobe neocortex and hippocampus of AD brain [123]
5×FAD mice IF LPS was detected in pyramidal and stratum oriens regions of hippocampus of AD brain
LPS was co-localized with LPS-phagocytic cell
[23]
Blood AD patients LAL assay LPS levels in AD patients were 3- to 6-fold compared with that in control [22]
5×FAD mice ELISA LPS levels in AD mice were 4-fold compared with that in control [23]
5×FAD mice LAL assay LPS levels in AD mice were 4-fold compared with that in control [136]
Feces 5×FAD mice LAL assay LPS levels in AD mice were 3- to 4-fold compared with that in control [23, 136]
  1. AD Alzheimer’s disease, ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, IF immunofluorescence, IHC immunohistochemistry, LAL assay limulus amebocyte lysate assay, LPS lipopolysaccharides, WB western blot