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Table 3 Gram-negative bacteria-derived products affect Alzheimer’s disease and other diseases

From: Gram-negative bacteria and their lipopolysaccharides in Alzheimer’s disease: pathologic roles and therapeutic implications

  Gram-negative bacteria-derived products AD-related pathology References
Tau Neuroinflammation Cell death BBB disruption
In Alzheimer’s disease Gingipain Production ↑ Hyperphosphorylation ↑
Aggregation ↑
Proinflammatory cytokines ↑ Pyroptosis ↑
Caspase-1 ↑
  [59]
Methylglyoxal (MG) Production ↑ Hyperphosphorylation ↑   Oxidative stress↑
Apoptosis↑
  [64, 85, 89]
Hcp1      Endothelial cell disruption ↑ [55]
Bacterial amyloid Aggregation ↑      [82]
In other diseases VacA    Proinflammatory cytokines ↑ Cell vacuolation ↑   [90, 91]
Bacterial amino-acid    Systemic inflammation ↑    [10]
Hcp1      Endothelial cell disruption ↑ [55]
MMP8      Junctional protein degradation ↑ [92]
Phosphorylcholine    Proinflammatory cytokine ↑    [93]
Short chain fatty acid    Proinflammatory cytokine ↑
Gliosis ↑
  Endothelial cell disruption ↑ [94,95,96]
Tryptophan    Proinflammatory cytokine ↑
Gliosis ↑
  Endothelial cell disruption ↑ [97]
  1. AD Alzheimer’s disease, Amyloid-β, BBB blood–brain barrier, Hcp1 Heme carrier protein 1, MMP8 matrix meralloproteinase-8, ROS reactive oxygen species, VacA vacuolating cytotoxin