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Table 2 Species of gram-negative bacteria exhibiting alteration in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

From: Gram-negative bacteria and their lipopolysaccharides in Alzheimer’s disease: pathologic roles and therapeutic implications

  Subject Source Method Gram-negative bacteria References
Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Peripheral system AD patients Blood ELISA Spirochetes Spirochetes Spirochetes Spirochetaceae Borrelia Borrelia burgdorferi [52]
Chlamydia Chlamydiae Chlamydiales Chlamydiaceae Chlamydophila Chlamydia pneumoniae
Proteobacteria Epsilonproteobacteria Campylobacterales Helicobacteraceae Helicobacter Helicobacter pylori
WB Spirochetes Spirochetes Spirochetes Spirochetaceae Borrelia Borrelia burgdorferi [53]
ELISA
WB
Spirochetes Spirochetes Spirochetes Spirochetaceae Borrelia Borrelia burgdorferi [46]
Feces PCR Firmicutes Negativicutes Selenomonadales Veillonellaceae Dialister   [9]
Negativicutes Acidaminococcales Acidaminococcaceae Phascolarctobacterium  
Bacteroidetes Bacteroidia Bacteroidales Bacteroidaceae Bacteroides  
Rikenellaceae Alistipes  
Actinobacteria Actinobacteria Bifidobacteriales Bifidobacteriaceae Bifidobacterium  
Actinobacteria Coriobacteriales Coriobacteriaceae Adlercreutzia  
Proteobacteria Deltaproteobacteria Desulfovibrionales Desulfovibrionaceae Bilophila  
Central system AD patients Brain PCR
EM
IEM
Chlamydia Chlamydiae Chlamydiales Chlamydiaceae Chlamydophila Chlamydia pneumoniae [40]
PCR Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Pseudomonadales Methylobacteriaceae
Moraxellaceae
Bradyrhizobiaceae
Sphingomonadaceae
Comamonadaceae
Xanthomonadaceae
   [13]
Bacteroidetes      
PCR Chlamydia Chlamydiae Chlamydiales Chlamydiaceae Chlamydophila Chlamydia pneumoniae [41]
PCR Spirochetes Spirochaetes Spirochaetes Spirochaetaceae Borrelia
Treponemas
Borrelia burgdorferi
T. pectinovorum
T. amylovorum
T. lecithinolyticum
T. maltophilum,
T. medium
T. socranski
[42]
PCR Chlamydia Chlamydiae Chlamydiales Chlamydiaceae Chlamydophila Chlamydia pneumoniae [43]
EM
AFM
Spirochetes       [44]
PCR Chlamydia Chlamydiae Chlamydiales Chlamydiaceae Chlamydophila Chlamydia pneumoniae [45]
IF Bacteroidetes Bacteroidia Bacteroidales Porphyromonadaceae Porphyromonas P. gingivalis [38]
Spirochetes Spirochetes Spirochete Spirochetaceae Treponema T. denticola
T. forsythia
WB Spirochetes Spirochetes Spirochetes Spirochetaceae Borrelia Borrelia burgdorferi [46]
WB
ICC
PCR
Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Enterobacterales Enterobacteriaceae Escherichia coli   [15]
CSF PCR Chlamydia Chlamydiae Chlamydiales Chlamydiaceae Chlamydophila Chlamydia pneumoniae [47]
ELISA Proteobacteria Epsilonproteobacteria Campylobacterales Helicobacteraceae Helicobacter Helicobacter pylori [48]
Serological analysis
ELISA
WB
Spirochetes Spirochetes Spirochetes Spirochetaceae Borrelia Borrelia burgdorferi [46]
Histopathologic analysis Spirochetes       [49]
  1. AD Alzheimer’s disease, AFM atomic force microscopy, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, EM electron microscopy, ICC immunocytochemistry, IEM immunoelectron microscopy, IF immunofluorescence, IHC immunohistochemistry, PCR polymerase chain reaction, WB western blot