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Table 4 Neuropsychological test scores and neuropsychiatric symptom test scores

From: Extensive frontal focused ultrasound mediated blood–brain barrier opening for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: a proof-of-concept study

  Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Mean (SD) P value
Visit 1 Visit 8 Visit 1 Visit 8 Visit 1 Visit 8 Visit 1 Visit 8 Visit 1 Visit 8 Visit 1 Visit 8  
Neuropsychological test score
Digit span backward  − 4.14  − 4.14 0.53 0.53  − 0.35  − 1.23  − 1.98  − 0.60  − 1.00  − 0.88  − 1.39 (1.79)  − 1.26 (1.74) 0.59
K-BNT  − 3.38  − 3.84  − 0.81  − 0.68  − 2.80  − 2.59  − 1.61  − 0.81  − 1.32  − 1.94  − 1.98 (1.07)  − 1.97 (1.31) 0.89
RCFT copy  − 7.20  − 7.48  − 1.88  − 2.00  − 9.14  − 9.37 0.93 1.00  − 1.23  − 0.94  − 3.70 (4.26)  − 3.76 (4.44) 0.69
SVLT delayed recall  − 2.97  − 2.97  − 2.30  − 2.30  − 3.40  − 3.40  − 1.42  − 1.63  − 2.74  − 2.51  − 2.57 (0.75)  − 2.56 (0.67) 0.66
RCFT delayed recall  − 2.34  − 2.34  − 2.07  − 2.07  − 3.08  − 2.91  − 1.23  − 0.96  − 2.54  − 2.36  − 2.25 (0.68)  − 2.13 (0.72) 0.11
COWAT semantic  − 2.99  − 3.21  − 0.17  − 2.08  − 2.56  − 2.32  − 1.91  − 1.40  − 2.08  − 2.65  − 1.94 (1.08)  − 2.33 (0.67) 0.50
COWAT phonemic  − 2.53  − 2.53  − 0.09  − 0.82  − 1.39  − 1.06  − 1.03  − 0.15  − 0.69  − 2.09  − 1.15 (0.91)  − 1.33 (0.97) 0.72
Stroop color reading  − 4.89  − 4.77  − 0.57  − 1.58  − 4.56  − 4.43  − 0.54  − 0.42  − 2.77  − 3.75  − 2.67 (2.09)  − 2.99 (1.90) 0.68
CDR 2 2 1 1 1 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 1 1.0 (0.6) 1.1 (0.55) 0.32
CDR-SOB 10 10 5.5 5.5 9 9 3.5 3.5 3.5 6 6.3 (3.1) 6.8 (2.7) 0.32
K-IADL 1.67 1.78 1.4 1.3 1.8 1.8 0.5 0.5 0.7 1.33 1.21 (0.58) 1.34 (0.53) 0.29
  Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Mean (SD) P value* P value
K-MMSE CGA-NPI K-MMSE CGA-NPI K-MMSE CGA-NPI K-MMSE CGA-NPI K-MMSE CGA-NPI K-MMSE CGA-NPI K-MMSE CGA-NPI K-MMSE CGA-NPI
K-MMSE and CGA-NPI score
Visit 1 9 9 22 16 16 11 21 2 19 2 17.4 (5.2) 8.0 (6.0)     
Visit7 (post-FUS) 8 3 20 1 16 7 23 0 18 0 17.0 (5.7) 2.2 (3.0) 0 .58 0.042   
Visit8 (3 months post-FUS ) 10 7 18 0 19 14 23 9 13 5 16.6 (5.1) 5.2 (5.8)    0.69 0.89
  1. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare the difference between the neuropsychological test z scores, CDR, CDR-SOB, K-IADL, K-MMSE and CGA-NPI of Visit 1 and Visit 8. Also, we compared the K-MMSE and CGA-NPI scores of Visit 1 and Visit 7 with same test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Visit 1: baseline. Visit 7: 2 weeks post-FUS. Visit 8: 3 months post-FUS
  2. CDR clinical dementia rating scale, CDR-SOB CDR sum of boxes, CGA-NPI caregiver-administrated neuropsychiatric inventory, COWAT controlled oral word association test, K-BNT Korean version of the Boston naming test, K-IADL Korean instrumental activities of daily living, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure Test, K-MMSE Korean version of mini-mental state examination, SD standard deviation, SVLT Seoul verbal learning test
  3. *P value: Comparison between Visit 1 and Visit 7
  4. P value: Comparison between Visit 1 and Visit 8