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Table 1 Regulation of DNAm during neurodegeneration

From: Roles of physical exercise in neurodegeneration: reversal of epigenetic clock

References Samples/subjects Conditions DNA methylation changes
Tan et al. [42] 5 ml blood samples of patients with PD PD CpG-2 of SNCA is hypomethylated
Cronk et al. [122] C57Bl/6 J
MeCP2-null mice
Rett syndrome MeCP2 regulates microglial responsiveness and inflammatory gene transcription
McKinney et al. [83] Postmortem orbital frontal cortices from 22 individuals (age > 60 years) Brain aging Ten of 26 CpG loci in BDNF are hypermethylated
Tarale et al. [45] Human neuroblastoma cell line PD PARK2 and PINK1 are hypermethylated
Xie et al. [157] Whole-blood samples from 506 aMCI patients AD Peripheral BDNF promoter methylation is elevated
Gontier et al. [133] Aged (18-month-old) male C57BL/6 mice Brain aging Decreased Tet2 expression and 5-hmC levels in the aged hippocampus
Li et al. [8] Individuals (Female: 47; Male: 54) AD Hypomethylated enhancers in the DSCAML1 gene that targets BACE1
Balasubramanian et al. [119] Adult male Wistar rats Mild traumatic brain injury Hypermethylation at SOD2 promoter
Li et al. [134] Aged APPswe/PSEN1 double-transgenic mice AD Decreased expression of Tet2
  1. 5-hmC 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, AD Alzheimer’s disease, aMCI amnestic mild cognitive impairment, APP amyloid precursor protein, BACE1 β-site APP cleaving enzyme I, BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor, MeCP2 methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, PARK2 Parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, PD Parkinson’s disease, PINK1 PTEN-induced putative kinase 1, PSEN1 presenilin 1, SOD2 superoxide dismutase 2, Tet2 ten-eleven translocation methyl cytosine dioxygenases