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Table 1 Characteristics of the reviewed cross-sectional studies

From: Associations of AT(N) biomarkers with neuropsychiatric symptoms in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease and cognitively unimpaired individuals

No. Author Study population (cohort) AT(N) Biomarkers Biomarker method / assay NPS instrument NPS with association Significant findings
1 Binette et al. 2020 [45] 117 ADAD mutation carriers (DIAN) A PiB-PET, global SUVR IPIP-NEO-120, NPI-Q NPI-Q score • ↑ A associated with ↑ NPI-Q score
2 Gatchel et al. 2017 [46] 111 CU - 5 with depression
PiB PET, DVR cut-off > 1.20
GDS GDS score • ↑ T associated with ↑ GDS score
3 Kim et al. 2018 [47] 667 CU
Pathology: neuritic plaques (T) and neurofibrillary tangles (A) NPI-Q Psychosis • ↑ T associated with ↑ psychosis
• No association between A and NPI-Q score
4 Krell-Roesch et al. 2017 [48] 1038 CU
A PiB-PET, SUVR cut-off ≥1.40 BAI, BDI-II Anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms • ↑ A associated with ↑ anxiety and ↑ depressive symptoms
5 Lussier et al. 2020 [49] 96 CU
(TRIAD – McGill University)
N (GM volume)
[18F]AZD4694-PET, SUVR cut-off by visual inspection
MBI-C MBI-C score • A linearly correlated with total MBI-C score
• No association between T, N and MBI-C score
6 Sun et al. 2008 [50] 995 CU and MCI - 348 depressed
(NAME cohort)
A Sandwich Aβ ELISA CES-D Depression • ↑ A associated with depression (findings likely driven by subjects with MCI)
7 Yasuno et al. 2016 [51] 30 CU A PiB-PET, BPND categorized by tertiles GDS-S GDS-S score • ↑ A associated with ↑ GDS-S score
8 Krell-Roesch et al. 2016 [52] 668 CU
N (Glucose metabolism) FDG-PET, SUVR cut-off < 1.32 in AD-signature ROI NPI-Q, BAI, BDI-II Depression, anxiety • ↓ Glucose metabolism associated with depression, especially in APOE ε4 carriers
• ↓ Glucose metabolism associated with ↑ depression and ↑ anxiety symptoms
9 Donovan et al. 2015 [53] 248 CU
N (HV, glucose metabolism)
PiB-PET, DVR cut-off > 1.20
GDS Depression • ↓ HV and ↓ glucose metabolism associated with ↑ GDS score
• ↓ HV associated with ↑ dysphoria and ↑ apathy-anhedonia scores
• ↓ Glucose metabolism associated with ↑ apathy-anhedonia scores
• No association between A and GDS score
  1. ↑: higher/greater; ↓ lower/lesser; A: amyloid-β; Aβ: amyloid-β; Aβ40: amyloid-β 1–40; Aβ42: amyloid-β 1–42; ADAD autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease, BAI Beck Anxiety Inventory, BDI-II Beck Depression Inventory-II, BPND binding potential (BP) estimates relative to nondisplaceable (ND) binding, CES-D Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, CU cognitively unimpaired, DIAN Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network, DVR distribution volume ratio, ELISA enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, FDG fluorodeoxyglucose, GDS geriatric depression scale, GDS-S geriatric depression scale short form, GM grey matter, HABS Harvard Aging Brain Study, HV hippocampal volume, IPIP-NEO-120 International Personality Item Pool Representation of the NEO PI, MBI-C Mild Behavioural Impairment Checklist, MCSA Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, N neurodegeneration, NACC National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center, NAME Nutrition, Aging and Memory in the Elderly study, NPI-Q Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, OR odds ratio, PET positron emission tomography, PiB Pittsburgh Compound B, ROI region of interest, T tau, SUVR standardized uptake value ratio, TRIAD Translational Biomarkers of Aging and Dementia cohort