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Table 1 Comparison of molecular components within GCIs, NCIs, and LBs* through analysis with post-mortem human brains

From: Insights into the pathogenesis of multiple system atrophy: focus on glial cytoplasmic inclusions

ProteinGCIsNCIsLBs*References
Chaperons
 α-synuclein+++[23]
 Heat shock protein 70 and 90+ND+[24,25,26]
 DJ-1+ND[27]
 αB-Crystallin++/−[20, 28]
Cytoskeletal proteins
 α/β-tubulin++[29,30,31]
 Tau (non-phosphorylated)+/−+/−[20, 30, 32, 33]
 Tau (phosphorylated)ND+/−[33,34,35]
 Microtubule associated protein-1+/−ND+[29, 31]
 Microtubule associated protein-2+[29, 31, 36]
 p25α/TPPP (tubulin polymerization-promoting protein)+++[37,38,39]
Ubiquitin and autophagy-related proteins
 Ubiquitin+++[20, 40]
 SUMO-1 (small ubiquitin modifier 1)+ND+/−[41, 42]
 20s proteasome subunits++[24, 43]
 HDAC6++[44]
 Parkin+/−ND+[45, 46]
 Pael-RND+[45]
 Dorfin++/−+[47, 48]
 NEDD-8+++[49]
 NUB1 (Negative regulator of ubiquitin-like protein 1)+++[50, 51]
 Synphilin-1++/−+[52, 53]
 F-box only protein (FBXO7)+ND+[54]
 p62/SQSTM1+ND+[35]
 LC3++[55, 56]
 NBR1++[57]
 AMBRA1++/−+[58, 59]
Apoptosis regulators
 Bcl-2+NDND[60]
 HtrA2/Omi+++[61]
 Parkin co-regulated gene (PACBG)++/−+[62]
 XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein)+++[63, 64]
 Apoptosome (cytochrome c, Apaf-1, caspase-9)+++[65, 66]
Signal transduction
 14–3-3 protein+++[67, 68]
 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)+NDND[69]
 LRRK2+ND+/−[46, 70, 71]
Metal-related proteins
 Transferrin+NDND[29]
 Ferritin+ND+/−[72, 73]
 Metallothionein-III+NDND[74]
 Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase+/−ND+[72, 75]
Oligodendroglial markers (proteins predominantly expressed in OLGs)**
 Midkine+ND[76]
 Leu-7+NDND[77]
Others
 Elk1+ND+[78, 79]
 cdk-5+ND+[69, 80]
 P39+NDND[81]
 DARPP32+NDND[82]
 Rab5, Rabatpin5+ND+[83, 84]
 Sept4+ND+[85]
 Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)+ND+[71, 86]
 Apolipoprotein E+/−ND+***[72, 87]
 Clusterin/apolipoprotein J+/−+/−[88]
 matrix metalloproteinase-2+NDND[89]
 transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43)+/−+/−+/−[90, 91]
Silver stain
 Campbell-Switzer++/−+[92, 93]
 Bodian++/−+[29, 92, 93]
 Bielshowsky++/−+[29, 92, 93]
 Gallyas++[29, 92,93,94]
  1. The presence/absence of each protein’s expression within GCIs and NCIs in MSA brains, and within LBs in PD brains is displayed. The lists of proteins and their profiles described above are modified from [72, 95, 96].
  2. +, positive; +/−, partially or weakly positive; −, negative; ND, not described. *, described as +, or +/− when the positivity was recognized in either brainstem-type or cortical LBs; **, proteins other than iron-related proteins; ***, amino-terminal 17 kDa fragment of Apolipoprotein E