TGFβ signaling displays higher activity in AiNPCs than FiNPCs
a Hierarchical cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEG) in AiNPCs and FiNPCs. b Venn diagram represents the numbers of genes expressed in AiNPCs (yellow) and FiNPCs (pink). c Volcano plot upregulated represents the up-regulated (red) and down-regulated (green) genes in the AiNPCs group versus the FiNPCs group. d Mapping of the subtracted DEG on GO analysis identified top 10 activated (green) or inhibited (red) biological processes in AiNPCs versus FiNPCs. e Mapping of the subtracted DEG on KEGG analysis identified top 20 activated (green) or inhibited (red) signaling in AiNPCs versus FiNPCs. f, g qPCR analysis of the subtracted differentially expressed genes (DEG) in TGFβ signaling, Hippo signaling, AD-related signaling, and PD-related signaling in AiNPCs & FiNPCs f, and astrocytes & fibroblasts g. h The phosphorylation levels of Smad2 in FiNPCs and AiNPCs were determined by western blot. i The phosphorylation levels of Smad2 in fibroblasts and astrocytes were determined by western blot. The quantification results were given on the right panel. Data were normalized to GAPDH and presented as fold change. Error bars denote s.d. from triplicate measurements. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.00, and ***P < 0.0001 by two-tailed t test (n = 3).