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Table 2 Separate analyses based on control group for comparing biochemical indicator levels in blood and CSF

From: Aberrations of biochemical indicators in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Biochemical indicator vs HC vs ONDsa
No. of studies No. of ALS/controls WMD Lower 95%CI High 95% CI p value No. of studies No. of ALS/controls WMD Lower 95%CI High 95% CI p value
Total cholesterol 16 2762/4479 3.98 −3.48 11.44 0.30 1 39/66 10.87 −1.22 22.96 0.08
LDL-C 13 2677/4347 0.46 −6.56 7.47 0.90 0 NA NA NA NA NA
HDL-C 14 2707/4376 1.67 −0.89 4.24 0.20 0 NA NA NA NA NA
TG 11 2366/2261 0.11 −9.15 9.37 0.98 0 NA NA NA NA NA
Fasting blood glucose 8 220/204 0.13 0.05 0.21 0.001 1 81/37 0.20 −0.23 0.63 0.37
Fasting insulin 6 94/88 −6.79 −29.27 15.70 0.55 0 NA NA NA NA NA
CSF glucose 1 20/20 −0.05 −0.37 0.27 0.76 2 112/71 0.06 −0.10 0.21 0.45
CSF total proteinb 0 NA NA NA NA NA 5 312/153 −1.45 −5.13 2.24 0.44
Qalb 1 14/20 2.00 −2.94 6.94 0.43 5 508/180 0.46 −0.55 1.47 0.37
Serum albumin 3 630/611 −1.52 −5.53 2.48 0.46 0 NA NA NA NA NA
Serum total protein 3 705/690 −0.44 −1.03 0.14 0.14 0 NA NA NA NA NA
Serum ferritin 9 1638/1217 63.43 48.12 78.73 < 0.001 2 572/255 58.72 29.23 88.21 < 0.001
Serum transferrinc 6 974/659 −0.13 −0.17 −0.08 < 0.001a 2 184/83 0.81 −1.34 2.96 0.46
Serum iron 6 974/659 0.34 −0.68 1.37 0.51 1 72/38 −0.49 −2.70 1.71 0.66
TIBC 3 236/304 −2.42 −3.93 −0.90 0.002 1 72/38 −1.74 −5.39 1.91 0.35
TSC % 3 858/486 2.79 1.52 4.05 < 0.001 0 NA NA NA NA NA
Creatine kinase 5 229/1843 80.29 32.90 127.67 0.001 0 NA NA NA NA NA
  1. Abbreviations: ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, CI confidence interval, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, HC healthy control, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, NA not available, OND other neurological disease, Qalb CSF/serum albumin quotient, TG triglyceride, TIBC total iron-binding capacity, TSC% transferrin saturation coefficient, WMD weighted mean difference
  2. a: ONDs are other neurological diseases excluding ALS-related disease. Note: only one study compared ALS with lower motor neuron disease on total protein in CSF [Süssmuth. S. 2010]
  3. b: Süssmuth. S et al. compared total protein in CSF and Qalb between ALS patients and lower motor neuron disease but the results did not have statistical significance (CSF total protein: WMD = −6.90, 95% CI [− 36.23–22.43], p = 0.65; Qalb: WMD = 2.00, 95% CI [−2.94–6.94], p = 0.47)
  4. c: By performing a separate analysis based on control group, serum transferrin showed a significant decrease in ALS patients compared with healthy controls other than ONDs