Skip to main content

Table 2 Association between baseline characteristics and risk of EMO

From: Early morning off in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a Chinese nationwide study and a 7-question screening scale

Baseline variables Univariate logistic regression model Age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression model Multiple stepwise logistic regression model
Odds ratio (95%CI) P value Odds ratio (95%CI) P value Odds ratio (95%CI) P value
Age group
  < 55 years 1.00 (reference)    1.00 (reference)  
 55–64 years 1.35 (0.92–2.00) 0.132 1.28 (0.78–2.11) 0.323
 65–74 years 1.48 (1.00–2.19) 0.050 1.79 (1.09–2.96) 0.023
  > =75 years 1.28 (0.80–2.06) 0.301 1.14 (0.62–2.12) 0.668
Sex
 Male 1.00 (reference)    
 Female 0.94 (0.73–1.21) 0.634
BMI groups
 Normal 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Overweight or obese 0.86 (0.66–1.11) 0.251 0.85 (0.65–1.11) 0.228
Education level
 Primary school or lower 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   
 Middle or high school 1.10 (0.80–1.50) 0.570 1.09 (0.79–1.50) 0.610
 University or higher 1.03 (0.69–1.53) 0.880 1.04 (0.69–1.56) 0.860
Occupation       
 Unemployed 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   
 Worker or farmer 0.70 (0.43–1.12) 0.136 0.66 (0.41–1.07) 0.096
 Professional technician or others 0.85 (0.53–1.36) 0.508 0.82 (0.51–1.31) 0.399
Family history of PD
 No 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Yes 0.99 (0.64–1.54) 0.964 1.03 (0.66–1.60) 0.908
Overall nighttime sleep
 Good 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 General 2.17 (1.59–2.97) < 0.001 2.20 (1.61–3.01) < 0.001 2.08 (1.41–3.07) < 0.001
 Poor 3.30 (2.36–4.64) < 0.001 3.34 (2.38–4.71) < 0.001 3.29 (2.14–5.08) < 0.001
Nocturnal arousals
 None 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   
 1–5 times 1.72 (1.08–2.77) 0.024 1.65 (1.04–2.68) 0.038
  > 5 times 3.17 (1.63–6.27) 0.001 2.98 (1.53–5.95) 0.002
PD duration 1.10 (1.06–1.13) < 0.001 1.10 (1.06–1.14) < 0.001 1.06 (1.02–1.11) 0.006
H&Y group
 Mild (stage of 1–2) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Moderate (stage of 2.5–3) 2.75 (2.09–3.64) < 0.001 2.76 (2.09–3.66) < 0.001 1.78 (1.24–2.57) 0.002
 Severe (stage of 4–5) 3.43 (1.58–8.06) 0.003 3.57 (1.62–8.48) 0.002 1.29 (0.48–3.64) 0.617
Symmetry of symptoms
 No 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   
 Yes 0.69 (0.41–1.17) 0.174 0.68 (0.40–1.15) 0.158
Clinical type
 TD 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 PIGD 1.62 (1.18–2.21) 0.003 1.66 (1.22–2.28) 0.002 1.72 (1.16–2.55) 0.007
 Mixed 2.02 (1.45–2.80) < 0.001 2.05 (1.47–2.86) < 0.001 1.78 (1.17–2.71) 0.007
Medication use
 Levodopa monotherapy 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   
 Levodopa + DA 1.41 (0.96–2.09) 0.085 1.40 (0.95–2.08) 0.090
 Others 1.48 (0.98–2.25) 0.064 1.53 (1.01–2.34) 0.046
LEDD, mg/100 1.17 (1.11–1.24) < 0.001 1.17 (1.11–1.25) < 0.001 1.08 (1.01–1.16) 0.028
  1. Abbreviations: EMO early morning off, BMI body mass index, PD Parkinson’s disease, H&Y stage Hoehn-Yahr stage, TD tremor-dominant, PIGD Posture instability gait difficulty-dominant, DA dopamine agonists, LEDD levodopa equivalent daily dosage