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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study participants.

From: Early morning off in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a Chinese nationwide study and a 7-question screening scale

Baseline variables Overall
(n = 942)
EMO patients (n = 463) Non-EMO patients (n = 479) P Value
Age, y 64.0 ± 9.3 64.4 ± 8.8 63.5 ± 9.7 0.142
Age group
  < 55 years 149 (15.8) 63 (13.6) 86 (18.0) 0.269
 55–64 years 334 (35.5) 166 (35.9) 168 (35.1)  
 65–74 years 329 (34.9) 171 (36.9) 158 (33.0)  
  > =75 years 130 (13.8) 63 (13.6) 67 (14.0)  
Sex
 Male 489 (51.9) 244 (52.7) 245 (51.1) 0.681
 Female 453 (48.1) 219 (47.3) 234 (48.9)  
BMI groups
 Normal 550 (59.1) 278 (61.0) 272 (57.3) 0.279
 Overweight or obese 381 (40.9) 178 (39.0) 203 (42.7)  
Education level
 Primary school or lower 223 (24.3) 106 (23.6) 117 (24.9) 0.834
 Middle or high school 520 (56.6) 259 (57.6) 261 (55.7)  
 University or higher 176 (19.2) 85 (18.9) 91 (19.4)  
Occupation
 Unemployed 84 (9.1) 46 (10.2) 38 (8.1) 0.192
 Worker or farmer 363 (39.4) 166 (36.6) 197 (42.1)  
 Professional technician or others 474 (51.5) 241 (53.2) 233 (49.8)  
Family history of PD
 No 847 (90.6) 416 (90.6) 431 (90.5) 1.000
 Yes 88 (9.4) 43 (9.4) 45 (9.5)  
Overall nighttime sleep
 Good 331 (35.4) 113 (24.6) 218 (45.8) < 0.001
 General 342 (36.5) 181 (39.3) 161 (33.8)  
 Poor 263 (28.1) 166 (36.1) 97 (20.4)  
Nocturnal arousals
 None 83 (8.9) 30 (6.5) 53 (11.2) 0.003
 1–5 times 785 (84.0) 387 (84.1) 398 (83.8)  
  > 5 times 67 (7.2) 43 (9.3) 24 (5.1)  
Age of PD onset, y 58.3 ± 9.9 57.9 ± 9.3 58.6 ± 10.5 0.302
PD duration 5.7 ± 4.3 6.5 ± 4.4 5.0 ± 3.9 < 0.001
H&Y stages 2.1 ± 0.7 2.3 ± 0.7 2.0 ± 0.7 < 0.001
H&Y group
 Mild (stage of 1–2) 560 (60.2) 220 (47.9) 340 (72.0) < 0.001
 Moderate (stage of 2.5–3) 342 (36.7) 219 (47.7) 123 (26.1)  
 Severe (stage of 4–5) 29 (3.1) 20 (4.4) 9 (1.9)  
Symmetry of symptoms
 No 854 (93.2) 421 (94.4) 433 (92.1) 0.217
 Yes 62 (6.8) 25 (5.6) 37 (7.9)  
Clinical type
 TD 404 (44.7) 166 (37.5) 238 (51.7) < 0.001
 PIGD 268 (29.7) 142 (32.1) 126 (27.4)  
 Mixed 231 (25.6) 135 (30.5) 96 (20.9)  
Medication use
 Levodopa monotherapy 143 (18.7) 59 (15.9) 84 (21.4) 0.146
 Levodopa + DA 374 (49.0) 186 (50.1) 188 (47.8)  
 Others 247 (32.3) 126 (34.0) 121 (30.8)  
LEDD, mg 504.4 ± 257.9 556.0 ± 269.4 455.6 ± 236.7 < 0.001
SES score, % 83.7 ± 13.9 79.3 ± 15.5 87.8 ± 10.6 < 0.001
SES group
 Independent 703 (85.1) 312 (77.4) 391 (92.4) < 0.001
 Dependent 123 (14.9) 91 (22.6) 32 (7.6)  
  1. Abbreviations: EMO early morning off, BMI body mass index, PD Parkinson’s disease, H&Y stage Hoehn-Yahr stage, TD tremor-dominant, PIGD Posture instability gait difficulty-dominant, DA dopamine agonists, LEDD levodopa equivalent daily dosage, SES Schwab-England Activities of Daily Living Scale