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Table 2 Summary of effects of MB or PBM on neurodegenerative disorders and brain injury

From: Mitochondria as a target for neuroprotection: role of methylene blue and photobiomodulation

Disease Effect of a treatment with MB Effect of a treatment with PBM
AD • Increases functional MRI activity and improves memory retrieval [200] • Reduces hyperphosphorylated tau, neurofibrillary tangles, and oxidative stress [234, 235]
• Decreases Aβ levels and Aβ-ABAD binding [226] • Increases the ability of Aβ phagocytosis [236]
• Attenuates the activity and expression of β-secretase, inhibits the formation of neurotoxic oligomeric Aβ, and improves behavioral results [19, 20, 198] • Improves spatial learning and memory by significantly reducing Aβ burden [236]
• Exerts neuroprotection by activating the
• Inhibits p-tau aggregation and tau-tau interactions [229, 230] ERK/CREB pathway and upregulating the expression of BDNF [237]
• Reduces excessive ROS production [17, 22]
• Upregulates Complex IV activates, heme synthesis and mitochondrial function [226, 231,232,233] • Restores mitochondrial dynamics [8]
TBI • Decreases edema and lesion volume and improves behavioral scores [163] • Neurological improvement [246]
• Increases autophagy [242]. • Increases mitochondrial function, improves blood flow, and reduces swelling [244, 247]
• Inhibits excessive ROS production and attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, and neuronal apoptosis [243]
• Decreases oxidative stress, inhibits inflammation, and attenuates apoptosis [244, 247]
Stroke • Improves behavioral results after focal cerebral ischemia [16] • Improves neurological rating scores [4, 255, 256]
• Decreases lesion volume, cerebral edema, and gray and white- matter damage [16, 18] • Stimulates neurogenesis and improves mitochondrial function [4, 262]
• Increases cerebral global glucose uptake and blood flow [251, 252] • Preserves mitochondrial integrity [263]
• Increases mitochondrial function [9, 252] • Attenuates mitochondrial fragmentation and restores mitochondrial dynamics [254]
• Preserves mitochondrial structure and function [253]
• Increases mitophagy and preserves mitochondrial membrane potential [253] • Decreases protein carbonylation, DNA oxidative damage, and lipid peroxidation [254]
Depression • Improves the symptoms of patients with severe depression [265] • Improves depressive symptoms [274,275,276,277]
• Selectively inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) [264, 265, 270, 271] • Improves ATP production and increases activity and expression of mitochondrial Complex IV [208]
PD • Attenuates dopamine loss and reduces the disruption of mitochondrial function and excessive production of ROS [280,281,282,283,284] • Reduces cell loss and inhibits inflammatory amoeboid microglia [287,288,289,290]
• Improves Complexes I, II, and III activities, reduces free radical production, and improves behavioral results [252, 285] • Improves speech, cognition, gait, and freezing episodes in PD patients [291, 292]
• Upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression [286] • Improves mitochondrial function and reduces oxidative stress [293]