Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographics and CSF biomarkers by diagnostic group

From: CSF total and oligomeric α-Synuclein along with TNF-α as risk biomarkers for Parkinson’s disease: a study in LRRK2 mutation carriers

 Ctrl (n = 43)sPD (n = 60)Asymptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers (n = 51)Symptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers (n = 23)
Age (y), mean ± SDa49 ± 1857 ± 1057 ± 1460 ± 11
Gender (male), n(%)a19 (38.0%)36 (52.9%)26 (50%)6 (25%)
Disease duration (y)bNA4 (1–6)NA7 (5–19)
MoCAc27 (27–29)27 (25–28)27 (26–28)25 (23.7–27)
H&YNA2 (2–2)0 (0–0)2 (2–3)
UPDRS-IIIdNA24 (19–29)3 (0.25–5)24 (19.5–27)
t-α-syn (pg/mL)e816 (596–1112)573 (466–710)***617 (431–803)**608 (432–740)**
o-α-syn (pg/mL)e161 (148–186)187.5 (170.5–219.8)**183 (160–230)**182 (146–196)
pS129-α-syn (pg/mL)e116 (103–145)139 (114.25–163)121 (94–150)122 (106–145)
tTau (pg/mL)f141.2 (89.6–201.3)134.7 (88.3–224.9)123.6 (86.7–236.4)113.5 (94.9–167.8)
pTau (pg/mL)f12 (9–16)14.3 (9.6–21.7)14.7 (10.7–20.8)15.9 (10.5–22.4)
Aβ-40 (pg/mL)f2506 (1967–3120)2595.7 (2193.7–3098.2)2776.2 (2287.6–4020.6)3048.9 (1959.3–3810.8)
Aβ-42 (pg/mL)f517.9 (404.77–738)535.4 (405.11–662.6)580.3 (457.8–905.3)539.9 (410.9–880.9)
IL-16g6.5 (4.9–8)5.1 (4–6.6)*5.1 (3.9–6.8)4.3 (2.8–5.3)
TNF-αg3.3 (2.6–5.5)4.2 (2.4–6.5)5.5 (4.2–7.4)*5.5 (2.5–7.3)
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD, median (IQR), or n (%). Demographical differences between groups were analyzed using analysis of variance with post hoc Bonferroni tests (age), X2 tests (gender), and Kruskal-Wallis with post hoc Mann-Whitney U tests (MoCA, H&Y, UPDRS and disease duration). Differences in CSF biomarker levels between groups were assessed with a GLM adjusted for age and gender. T-, o-, and pS129-α-syn, IL-16, TNF-α, tTau, ptau, Aβ40 and Aβ-42 were log-transformed, yet presented as raw data (* p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 compared with Ctrl)
  2. Aβ1–42, amyloid β1–42; Ctrl, healthy controls; H&Y, Hoehn and Yahr scale; IL-16, interleukin-16; MoCA, Montreal Cognitive Assessment; NA, not applicable; o-α-syn, oligomeric α-synuclein; pSer129-α-synuclein, phosphorylated α-synuclein protein at serine 129; pTau, tau phosphorylated at threonine 181; sPD, sporadic PD; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-alpha; tTau, total tau protein; t-α-syn, total α-synuclein; UPDRS-III, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale
  3. aCtrl, n = 43; sPD, n = 58; Asymptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers, n = 51, Symptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers, n = 23
  4. b Ctrl, n = NA; sPD, n = 59; Symptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers, n = 21
  5. c Ctrl, n = 15; sPD, n = 59; Asymptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers, n = 48, Symptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers, n = 22
  6. d Ctrl, n = 15; sPD, n = 59; Asymptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers, n = 48, Symptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers, n = 21
  7. e Ctrl, n = 43; sPD, n = 60; Asymptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers, n = 51, Symptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers, n = 23
  8. f Ctrl, n = 28; sPD, n = 40; Asymptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers, n = 26, Symptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers, n = 11
  9. g Ctrl, n = 28; sPD, n = 42; Asymptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers, n = 24, Symptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers, n = 12