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Table 2 A list of the evidence supporting and refuting the following variable as a risk factor of freezing of gait

From: Freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease: pathophysiology, risk factors and treatments

 Supporting evidenceaRefuting evidencea
Demographic risk factors
 Male sex[16, 17, 25][18,19,20,21,22,23,24, 26]
 Low education level[22][19, 23, 24]
 Onset age [16, 17, 20,21,22,23, 25, 26]
 Age [18, 19, 21,22,23,24,25]
 Baseline longer disease duration[20, 23][16,17,18,19, 21]b
Motor symptoms
 Gait disorders[16,17,18,19,20,21, 23][22]
 Motor phenotype[16, 17, 21, 22][18, 19, 25]
 Motor fluctuation[21][23]
 Balance, festination and fallsFestination and falls [23], balance [20]Balance [19]
Non-motor symptoms
 Cognitive disturbance[16, 17, 22,23,24][18,19,20,21]
 Depression[19, 20, 22][16, 23, 24]
 Anxiety[18][16, 23, 24]
 SleepInsomnia [22], daytime sleepiness [24]RBD [16, 18, 24], daytime sleepiness [16, 23]
 OthersSpeech problems [20], hallucination [23] 
Neuroimaging and fluid parameters
 Lower striatal DAT update[16, 17, 25] 
 White matter hyperintensities[26] 
 CSF Aβ42[16] 
Medication use
 High LEDD[21][18, 19, 23, 26]
 Dopamine agonist [22]
  1. Demographic information, motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms, neuroimaging, fluid parameters, and medication use were all included
  2. DAT Dopamine transporter, CSF Cerebrospinal fluid, LEDD Levodopa equivalent daily doses
  3. aOnly the prospective studies that followed early-stage PD patients over time and the retrospective studies that clearly recorded the clinical manifestation prior to FOG onset were cited here
  4. bBaseline disease duration instead of the whole disease duration was analyzed in those cited studies. Relatively short disease duration might be the reason for failure to identify disease duration as a risk factor