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Table 2 Selected microRNAs for further qPCR validation analysis

From: Exploratory study on microRNA profiles from plasma-derived extracellular vesicles in Alzheimer’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies

miRNA Previously reported in the literature Ref NGS Counts Mean Fold change (2-ΔΔCt)
(95% C.I.)
CTRL DLB AD
hsa-miR-21-5p Down-regulated in serum-EVs from AD patients compared to controls [20] 14,337 1.49 (0.91–2.06) 1.81 (0.67–2.96) 0.29 (0.03–0.56)
Up-regulated in serum-EVs from PD patients in comparison to AD
Down-regulated in CSF from AD patients compared to control individuals [42]
Down-regulated in plasma from PD patients compared to normal controls [43]
hsa-miR-26a-5p Deregulated in AD blood (different results in NGS and qPCR) [44] 27,896 1.88 (0.96–2.79) 1.04 (0.54–1.53) 0.8 (0.09–1.5)
miR-26a is up-regulated in CSF from PD patients compared to controls [21]
Up-regulated in blood from AD patients compared to controls [45, 46]
Down-regulated in CSF from AD patients compared to controls [19]
Down-regulated in serum from AD patients compared to healthy controls [47]
Down-regulated in ALS blood compared to controls [48]
hsa-let-7i-5p Down-regulated in PD brains compared to controls [49] 15,170 1.43 (0.78–2.09) 1.23 (0.05–1.75) 0.41 (0.06–0.75)
Increased expression in AD patients’ hippocampus [50]
Up-regulated in CSF from AD compared to controls. [42]
Down-regulated in ALS compared to controls [48]
hsa-miR-126-3p miR-126 is down-regulated in CSF-EXs from AD and PD patients vs controls [21, 51] 37,418 2.23 (1.41–3.04) 1.88 (0.66–3.1) 0.89 (0.03–1.74)
Increased expression in the hippocampus of AD mouse model vs WT controls [52]
hsa-miR-451a Up-regulated in serum-EXs from MS patients compared to controls [53] 10,058 2.05 (1.21–2.88) 1.84 (0.76–2.92) 0.19 (0.05–0.33)
Increased in plasma from vascular dementia patients compared to healthy controls [54]
Decreased expression in CSF-EXs from AD compared to controls [55]
Down-regulated in ALS compared to controls [48]
hsa-miR-23a-3p Up-regulated in brain tissue from AD patients [50] 6834 1.85 (1.24–2.45) 1.17 (0.65–1.68) 0.52 (0.06–0.97)
miR-23a is down-regulated in serum samples from AD patients’ vs FTD and controls [56]
Down-regulated in blood from MS patients compared to controls [57]
Down-regulated in CSF from AD patients compared to control individuals [42]
Reflect MS disease status in serum-EXs [53]
Increased expression in brain tissue from AD patients compared to controls [51]
Down-regulated in ALS blood compared to controls [48]
hsa-let-7f-5p Up-regulated in AD hippocampus compared to healthy controls [50] 191,299 1.29 (0.59–1.99) 1.28 (0.23–2.34) 1.05 (0.33–1.76)
Up-regulated in AD serum compared to healthy controls [58]
Down-regulated in blood from AD patients compared to controls [45]
Down-regulated in ALS blood /plasma compared to controls [48, 59]
hsa-miR-409-3p Down-regulated in the prefrontal cortex of AD patients [50] 5236 1.48 (0.05–3.01) 1.46 (0.12–2.79) 1.35 (0.19–2.52)
Down-regulated in CSF from PD patients compared to controls [20]
Up-regulated in CSF-EXs from PD patients compared to AD and control EXs [21, 60]
Up-regulated in serum-EXs from MS patients compared to controls [53]
Down-regulated in plasma from vascular dementia patients compared to controls [54]
hsa-miR-92a-3p Down-regulated expression in serum from PD patients compared to controls [61] 30,066 1.89 (0.42–3.35) 1.22 (0.54–1.89) 1.38 (− 0.29–3.06)
Differentially expressed in PD and Huntington patients’ brain [62]
Up-regulated in CSF from AD patients compared to control individuals [42]
Down-regulated in the serum samples of AD patients’ vs MCI subjects [63]
Differentially expressed in AD and MCI [64]
hsa-let-7b-5p Let-7b miRNA is up-regulated in AD patients’ brain [51] 107,394 1.98 (0.07–3.89) 0.81 (0.39–1.23) 2.097 (0.58–3.61)
Let-7b is down-regulated in the white matter of AD patients [65]
Increased amounts of let-7b in CSF from AD patients [66]
Differentially expressed in AD in comparison to controls [64]
hsa-miR-151a-3p Up-regulated in AD blood compared to controls [44] 5798 2.04 (− 0.13–4.22) 0.98 (0.34–1.63) 0.70 (− 0.09–1.5)
Up-regulated in blood from AD patients compared to controls [45]
Differentially expressed in AD in comparison to controls [64]
hsa-miR-24-3p miR-24 is up-regulated in serum and plasma of MSA compared to PD patients [67] 10,896 1.5 (0.68–2.33) 1.49 (0.28–2.69) 25.21 (3.11–47.31)
Dow-regulated in plasma-EXs from AD patients compared to controls [22]
miR-24 is deregulated in CSF from AD patients [68]
Decreased expression in AD-CSF compared to controls [42, 69]
miR-24 expression is decreased in CSF from PD patients compared to controls [16]
Differently expressed in blood and CSF in AD and FTD patients [70]
hsa-miR-143-3p miR-143 is up-regulated in AD brain patients [51] 17,380 5.85 (− 2.88–14.6) 1.22 (− 0.11–2.56) 2.42 (− 1.28–6.11)
Down-regulated in CSF from ALS patients compared to controls [71]
Increased expression in serum-EXs of AD patients vs healthy controls [23]
Down-regulated in serum from AD patients [72]
Up-regulated in CSF from AD and dementia patients compared to controls [42]
Up-regulated in brain of PD mouse model [73]
Increased expression in serum ALS compared to controls [74]
hsa-miR-423-5p Under-represented in the cortex of AD patients [50, 65] 8928 1.99 (0.52–3.46) 1.23 (0.43–2.04) 8.04 (2.02–14.06)
Increased expression in CSF from AD and dementia patients vs controls [42]
Down-regulated expression in PD putamen tissue [73]
Differentially expressed in AD blood compared to healthy controls [64]
Down-regulated in plasma from PD patients compared to normal controls [43]
Up-regulated in CSF from AD patients compared to controls [51]
Low expression in CSF from PD patients [75]
hsa-miR-183-5p In serum, associated to neurofibrillary tangles score in AD patients [20] 3820 1.18 (0.63–1.73) 0.79 (0.15–1.44) 15.77 (0.84–30.7)
Differentially expressed in AD and other types of dementia patients vs controls [42]
Down-regulated in peripheral blood from ALS patients [48]
Decreased expression is associated to PD [76]
  1. Literature search was performed in different databases for the top most abundant miRNAs found by the exploratory Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) study. PubMed, and the Nervous System Disease NcRNAome Atlas (NSDNA) (30) were used to explore their relation with neurodegeneation-related processes. Total read count for each miRNA by NGS is shown; For qPCR analysis, mean and 95% C.I. is shown
  2. Key: EVs Extracellular vesicles, AD Alzheimer’s disease, DLB Dementia with Lewy bodies, CSF Cerebrospinal fluid, PD Parkinson’s disease, MS Multiple Sclerosis, ALS Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, EXs Exosomes, FTD Frontotemporal dementia, MCI Mild cognitive impairment