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Table 1 Summary of the development and recent studies of mitochondrial transplantation

From: Current progress of mitochondrial transplantation that promotes neuronal regeneration

Disease or injury state Source of mitochondria Recipient Method of delivery Mechanism of mitochondria uptake Outcome Reference
In vitro       
Ischemia MMSCs Cortical neurons & astrocytes Co-culture Cytosol transfer Improved cell viability Babenko et al., 2015
UV light damage PC12 PC12 Co-culture TNTs mtDNA transfer Wang and Gerdes, 2015
Ischemia/reperfusion BM-MSCs H9c2 Co-culture TNTs Reduced apoptosis process Han et al., 2016
TBI Cortical neurons Hippocampal neurons Add in medium Not discussed Enhanced neuroregeneration Chien et al., 2018
In vivo       
Acute lung injury (ALI) mBMSCs; hBMSCs Aveolar epithelia Intranasal instillation Cx43-dependent nanotubes and micro-vesicles formation Increased alveolar [ATP] and abrogated ALI pathologies Islam et al., 2012
In situ blood-perfused regional ischemia Autologous rabbit muscle cells Myocardial cells Injection of mitochondria-containing respiration buffer Actin-dependent organelle-to-cell transfer Decreased myocyte necrosis and enhanced post-ischemic function Masuzawa et al., 2013
Transient focal cerebral ischemia Mouse cortical astrocytes Peri-infarct cortex Direct injection or autologous secretions Integrin-mediated astrocyte-to-neuron mitochondrial transfer Promoted adjacent neuronal survival and plasticity after injury transfer Hayakawa et al., 2016
Parkinson’s disease PC12; human osteosarcoma cybrids PD rats/ brain neurons Local injection at medial forebrain bundle Pep-1-mediated cell-penetrating mitochondrial delivery Improved locomotive activity and attenuated deterioration of dopaminergic neurons Chang et al., 2016
Acute myocardial infarction Autologous porcine muscle cells Myocardial cells Injection of mitochondria-containing respiration buffer Not discussed Enhanced myocardial cell viability following ischemia and reperfusion Kaza et al., 2017
Parkinson’s disease HepG2 Multiple tissues Intravenous injection Not discussed Increased ETC activity, decreased ROS formation, apoptosis and necrosis Shi et al., 2017
Spinal cord injury: L1/L2 contusion PC12; syngeneic muscle cells Brain macrophages, endothelium, pericytes, glia Microinjection at mediolateral grey matter Zipper-like actin-mediated phagocytosis Maintenance of acute mitochondrial bioenergetics, enhanced behavioral recovery Gollihue et al., 2017
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease HepG2 Multiple tissues Intravenous injection Not discussed Decreased lipid content and restored cellular redox balance Fu et al., 2017
Acetaminophen-induced liver injury HepG2 Multiple tissues Intravenous injection Not discussed Increased hepatocytes energy supply, reduced oxidation stress Shi et al., 2018
  1. MMSCs mesenchymal multipotent stroma cells, PC12 pheochromocytoma cell line, TNTs tunneling nanotubes, BM-MSCS bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, H9c2 heart myoblast cell line, TBI traumatic brain injury
  2. m/hBMSCs mouse/human bone-marrow-derived stromal cells, Cx43 connexin 43, HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, ETC electron transfer chain, ROS reactive oxygen species