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Table 2 Baseline levels of CSF biomarker

From: Cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau, visinin-like protein-1, and chitinase-3-like protein 1 in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

Characteristics CN (n = 32) sMCI (n = 24) pMCI (n = 47) AD (n = 18)
Aβ42, pg/ml [mean (SE)] 226.1 (9.3) b, c, d 178.5 (10.9)a, c, d 147.5 (7.0)a, b 136.1 (6.4)a, b
T-tau, pg/ml [mean (SE)] 64.3 (3.7)c, d 87.2 (10.8)d 107.8 (7.2)a, d 153.2 (19.1)a, b, c
P-tau-181, pg/ml [mean (SE)] 22.2 (1.6)c, d 28.9 (3.1)c, d 39.5 (2.4)a, b 45.8 (3.9)a, b
VILIP-1, pg/ml [mean (SE)] 133.0 (6.7)c, d 146.0 (10.6)c, d 184.3 (9.4)a, b 189.7 (16.6)a, b
YKL-40, ng/ml [mean (SE)] 397.2 (25.7) 384.0 (28.1) 400.7 (19.4) 471.9 (39.5)
  1. P values indicate the values assessed with analyses of variance for each variable. Post hoc analysis provided significant differences between groups: afrom CN; bfrom sMCI; cfrom pMCI; dfrom AD
  2. Abbreviations: SE Standard error, VILIP-1 Visinin-like protein-1, YKL-40 Chitinase-3-like protein 1, CN cognitively normal, sMCI stable mild cognitive impairment, pMCI progressive mild cognitive impairment, AD Alzheimer’s disease