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Table 1 Study of the various known pathological factors in AD

From: Impact of the biological definition of Alzheimer’s disease using amyloid, tau and neurodegeneration (ATN): what about the role of vascular changes, inflammation, Lewy body pathology?

Factor Imaging CSF Blood Potential RX
Amyloid-β load [11C]PIB
[18F]NAV4694
[18F]florbetapir
[18F]florbetaben
[18F]flutemetamol
Amyloid-β(1–42) APP669–711;
Amyloid-β(1–42);
Amyloid-β(1–40);
BACE inhibitors
Amyloid-β immunotherapy
Neurofibrillary tangles load [18F]MK6240
[18F]AV1451
[11C]PBBB3
Phosphorylated tau The association of serum phosphorylated tau with tangles is unclear Anti-aggregation
Tau immunotherapy
Neurodegeneration MRI
[18F]FDG
Neurofilament light chain (NFL); d neurogranin (Ng);
Visinin-like protein-1 (VILIP-1); Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25);
Neuron-specific enolase (NSE); Heart fatty acid binding protein (HFABP)
Neurofilament light chain (NFL) Neurotrophic factors
Vascular load MRI CSF albumin /plasma albumin ratio Control of risk factors
Lewy Body load NA α-synuclein α-synuclein α-synuclein immunotherapy
Neuroinflammation activity Microglial Activation:
[11C]PK11195
[11C]PBR28
[11C]DAA1106
[18F] DPA714
[11C] DPA713
[18F]GE180
Reactive astrocytes:
[11C]L-des-deprenyl
Microglial Activation:
Chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40), soluble TREM2 (sTREM2)
Cytokines:
TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β
Chemokines: monocyte chemotactic protein 1 [MCP-1]
Microglial Activation:
Chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40)
Cytokines:
TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β,
Chemokines: monocyte chemotactic protein 1 [MCP-1]
NSAIDS
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ
(PPAR-γ) activators
TNF-α inhibitor