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Table 1 Summary of studies on cognitive reserve in PD

From: Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: a distinct clinical entity?

Authors Participants CR measure Outcome measure Key findings
Sánchez et al. (2002)[72] 33 PDs 46 HCs Education, occupation, and premorbid IQ MMSE, IQ, memory, attention, language, visuospatial ability, and EF • PDs with higher CR > PDs with lower CR: MMSE, verbal IQ, EF, memory, language, and visuospatial ability
• PDs with higher CR= HCs with low CR: all tests, except one of the EF tests
Hindle et al. (2014)[69]a PDs and HCs from 34 studies Education Global cognition, MCI, EF, attention, visuospatial ability, memory • (+) corr between education and all the outcome measures
• (-) corr between education and reduced cognitive decline
• No corr between education and the onset of dementia
Hindle et al. (2015) [73] 57 monolingual English PDs
46 bilingual English PDs
Bilingualism EF • Bilingualism did not affect EF performance
Lucero et al. (2015)[70] 155 PDs Education MMSE, CDR, CDR-SB • No corr between β-amyloid deposition and the cognition (MMSE & CDR) in high-education group
• (+) corr between β-amyloid deposition and worse cognition (MMSE, CDR) in low-education group
Hindle et al. (2016)[71] 525 PDs Education, SES, social engagement Global cognition
CDR
• (+) corr between education, SES, social engagement and global cognition at baseline and follow-up (+) corr between age and low social engagement and the risk of dementia
Hindle et al. (2017) [74] 69 non-demented PDs Lifelong cognitive lifestyle (education, occupation, social engagement) EF • (+) corr between lifetime cognitive lifestyle and EF
• No difference in executive function between high and low CR groups
Rouillard et al. (2017) [75] 49 PDs 47 HCs Education, occupation, leisure and physical activities Global cognition, episodic memory, visuospatial ability, attention, processing speed, and EF • In HCs, (+) corr between CR and cognition
• In PDs, education and occupation contributed to better cognition, but to a lesser extent than in HCs.
• CR modulated the relationship between cognition and brain atrophy in PDs with less brain atrophy
  1. a: a meta-analysis study, (+) corr positive correlation, (-) corr negative correlation, CDR Clinical Dementia Rating, CDR-SB Clinical Dementia Rating-sum of boxes, CR cognitive reserve, EF executive function, HCs healthy controls, IQ intelligence quotient, MMSE Mini-Mental State Exam; No corr: no significant correlation, PD-NCs cognitively normal PD patients; PDDs demented PD patients, SES socio-economic status