Skip to main content

Table 4 Comparison between previous studies and present study

From: A survey of impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease patients in Shanghai area and literature review

Study population Sample Size Screen instruments Frequency of compulsive behaviors Risk factors Dosage of drugs
(ICD vs non ICD mg/d, mean)
Reference
Taiwan 268 DSM-IV-TR criteria for
PG and BE,
McElroy’s criteria for CS
Voon’s criteria (2006) for HS
ICD 4.48 %
PG 1.49 %, HS 2.99 %
CS 0 %, BE 0.37 %
Dopamine agonist
TLED
Male gender
TLED (ICD group): 741.94 DA-LED (ICD group): 105 4
Brazil 152 QUIP QUIP results:
ICD 18.4 %
PG 1.3 %, HS 11.8 %
CS 10.5 %, BE 7.9 %
Smoking
Use of pramipexole
TLED: 732.8 vs 644.4
Pramipexole: 2.9 vs 0.85
(equivalent to 290 vs 85)
5
North America 3090 Massachusetts Gambling Screen
MIDI
DSM-IV-TR
ICD 13.6 %
PG 5 %, HS 3.5 %
CS 5.7 %, BE 4.3 %
DA
combination of DA & Levodopa
younger age, male sex
current smoking
being unmarried
living in the United States
family history of gambling
DA-LED: 200 ~ 450 vs 150 ~ 400
(listed as interquartile in patients taking DA)
Levodopa: 621 vs 461 (in patients taking levodopa only)
6
Finland 575 SOGS
QUIP
QUIP results:
ICD 34.8 %
PG 8.8 %, HS 22.8 %
CS 10.1 %, BE 11.8 %
Depression, Male sex
Younger age
Age of disease onset
Current alcohol use
NA 7
Italy 805 QUIP for screen
Other criteria for confirmation
ICD 8.1 %
PG 3.2 %, HS 3.0 %
CS 1.0 %, BE 2.4 %
dopamine agonist
Male sex, levodopa
younger age, Amantadine
NA 8
Japan 118 QUIP for screen
Other criteria for confirmation
QUIP results vs Actual prevalence
ICD 28 % vs 12.9 %
PG 14 % vs 6.5 %
HS 14 % vs 3.2 %
CS 10.8 % vs 3.2 %
BE 10.8 % vs 3.2 %
younger age
longer disease duration
TLEDD, Levodopa
Earlier age of onset
ICB vs non-ICB
Levodopa: 676 vs 520
DA-LED: 139 vs 71.6
9
China 312 SOGS, DSM-IV
Lejoyeux’s Compulsive Shopping questionnaire;
specially designed hypersexuality questionnaire;
ICD 3.53 %
PG 0.32 %, HS 1.92 %
CS 0.32 %, BE 0.32 %
Dopamine agonist
Alcohol use
Levodopa: 345.5 vs 357.01
DA-LED: 142.37 vs 35.45
10
South Korea 1167 MIDI ICD 5.9 %
PG 1.3 %, HS 2.8 %
CS 2.5 %, BE 3.4 %
Dopamine agonist
Levodopa
Levodopa: 656 vs 544
DA-LED: 145 vs 99
11
Malaysian 200 QUIP QUIP results based on patient report
ICD 15.4 %
PG 2.6 %, HS 8.2 %
CS 3.6 %, BE 8.7 %
Male gender
Longer PD duration
PD patients:
TLED: 527.7
DA-LED: 73.7
12
Present study 217 MIDI
Voon’s criteria (2007) for each ICD
ICD 4.15 %
PG 1.38 %, HS 1.84 %
CS 0.46 %, BE 0.46 %
None Levodopa: 791.67 vs 425.0
DA-LED: 119.4 vs 60.5
--
  1. SOGS: modified South Oaks Gambling Screen. QUIP: Questionnaire for Impulsive Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease
  2. MIDI: Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview. ICB: impulsive compulsive behavior
  3. DA-LED: Dopamine agonist levodopa equivalent dosage. TLED: Total levodopa equivalent dosage