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Table 1 Candidate-tissue and biofluid-based biomarkers for ALS

From: New developments and future opportunities in biomarkers for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

  Evaluated biomarkers Meaning/function
CSF MMP-2, MMP-9 Markers of BBB dysfunction
  NfL, pNFH/C3, p-tau Neuroaxonal degeneration markers
  cystatin C, TDP-43 Markers of the neuroprotection
  IL-6, IL-8, complement factors C3 and C4, prostaglandin E2, neopterin, peroxynitrite, G-CSF, MCP-1 Markers of inflammation and immune activation
S100b, EPO Glial activation markers
Blood Creatinine, albumin, ferritin  
Muscle Nogo-A, smads