Current situation of stem cell-based therapies for AD. Stem cell-based therapies for AD can be achieved by cell replacement, Aβ reduction, neurotrophic action and immune modulation. ESCs, NSCs, MSCs, iPSCs, and iNPCs have the capacity to differentiate into cholinergic neurons to replace the apoptotic ones after transplanted. NSCs and MSCs are able to reduce Aβ or tau’s level. MSCs can play a positive role in neuroprotection and immune modulation.