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Table 3 Examples of existing and novel non-oral dopaminergic delivery forms

From: Treatment of the later stages of Parkinson’s disease – pharmacological approaches now and in the future

Non-oral therapies Examples Status
L-dopa   
Intraduodenal infusion DuoDopa Marketed
Subcutaneous infusion ND0612L Clinical trials
Inhalation CVT-301 Clinical trials
Apomorphine   
Subcutaneous injection APO-go pen Marketed
Subcutaneous infusion APO-go PFS Marketed
Inhalation - Clinical trials
Intranasal - Clinical trials
Sublingual APL-130277 Clinical trials
DA agonists   
Rotigotine transdermal NeuPro Marketed
Rotigotine subcutaneous depot LY03003 Clinical trials
Bromocriptine intranasal - Experimental