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Table 1 Spectrum of environmental stimuli and their effects on neurodegeneration

From: Role of early life exposure and environment on neurodegeneration: implications on brain disorders

S. no. Exposure Subject/animals Period of exposure Effect Reference
1. Ethanol Mice Postnatal day 3-20 Decreased number of neurons in Retinal ganglion cell layer and dorsalateral geniculate [79]
2. Microwave irradiation Mice Prenatal + 4 months postnatal Complete degeneration of RPE, nuclear pyknosis in photoreceptors, thinness of all layers [80]
3. Fried potato chips Rats Gestational day 6-postpartum day14 Vacuolization and apoptosis in GCL, swollen choriocapillaries, alteration in cellular organelles [81]
4. Lead (Pb) Mice Lactation period Altered mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial phosphorylation dysfunction [82]
5. Rotenone Rats Postnatal Thinness of GCL, disruption of mitochondrial complex I, photoreceptor loss [83]
6. Cycus plant   Postnatal ALS and PD [84]
7. Pesticide contaminated drinking water Human Postnatal Inhibitory effect on antioxidant enzyme systems, mitochondrial and proteosome function (PD) [85]
8. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine Mice Gestational day 8-12 and postnatal Apoptosis of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons enhancing toPD risk [86]
9. Methamphetamine Mice Postnatal day 11-21 Altered level of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampus [87]
10. Cypermethrin Rats Postnatal day 5-19 Dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) level in brain altered [88]
11. Aluminium Mice Pregnancy day 1-15 Neurotoxicity by affecting dopaminergic system [89]
12. Tobacco inhalation Mice Gestational day 6-17 Altered gene expression profile affecting morphology and function of hippocampus [90]