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Table 1 Study characteristics of pre-clinical studies on rodent models of Parkinson’s disease

From: The effects of exercise on cognition in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review

Authors Study title Subjects Intervention
Goes et al., 2013 [21] Neuroprotective effects of swimming training in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine • 2 groups (n = 20 each): 6-OHDA, saline • 20–60 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks
• 2 treatment cohorts (n = 10 each): swimming training, no exercise
• Starting 4 days after toxin administration
Gorton et al., 2010 [17] Exercise effects on motor and affective behavior and catecholamine neurochemistry in the MPTP-lesioned mouse • 2 groups (n = 24 each): MPTP, saline • Up to 1 hr/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks
• 3 treatment cohorts (n = 8/group): forced exercise, voluntary exercise, no exercise
• Starting 5 days after toxin administration
Tajiri et al., 2010 [18] Exercise exerts neuroprotective effects on Parkinson's disease model of rats • 1 group (n = 60): 6-OHDA • 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks
• 2 treatment cohorts (n = 30 each): forced exercise, no exercise
• Starting 1 day after toxin administration
Aguiar et al., 2009 [19] Physical exercise improves motor and short-term social memory deficits in reserpinized rats • 4 groups (n = 24 each): high/low dose reserpine or high/low dose saline • 20–25 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks
• Starting 4 weeks before toxin administration
• 3 treatment cohorts± (n = 8/group):forced exercise, voluntary exercise, no exercise
Pothakos et al., 2009 [20] Restorative effect of endurance exercise on behavioral deficits in the chronic mouse model of Parkinson's disease with severe neurodegeneration • 2 groups (n = 29 each): probenecid/MPTP (model of chronic PD), probenecid only • 40 min/day, 5 days/week for 8–12 weeks
• Starting 1 week before, 5 weeks during, 8–12 weeks after toxin administration
• 2 treatment cohorts (n = 5-10/group): forced endurance exercise, no exercise – for probenicid/MPTP group only
Fisher et al., 2004 [16] Exercise-induced behavioral recovery and neuroplasticity in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine- lesioned mouse basal ganglia • 2 groups (n = 60 each): MPTP, saline • Up to 2x 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks
• 2 treatment cohorts (n = 20/group): forced exercise, no exercise*
• Starting 4 days after toxin administration
  1. ±Only rats able to maintain a forward position on the treadmill were assigned to the treadmill exercise group.
  2. *Only rats able to maintain a forward position on the treadmill were randomized to either exercise or no exercise cohort.