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Table 3 Open label and placebo-controlled stem cell applications in clinical parkinsonism

From: Cell based therapy in Parkinsonism

Authors Patients Product Observ. time (months) Characteristics/
Dosages/Application
Outcome (* = p < 0.05 / ** = p < 0.01)
Venkataramana, Pal et al. [65] Allogenic 3, 6, 12 1. PD patients with bilateral subventricular intracerebral application of 2×106 /kg bodyweight MSCs in 2 ml (n = 8) UPDRS in ON/OFF:
PD patients MSCs   2. MSA + PSP patients with bilateral subventricular intracerebral application of 2×106 /kg bodyweight MSCs in 2 ml (n = 4) a. In PD patients: permanently improved* compared with baseline during both ON (18%: 51.2 versus 62.3) and OFF (31.2%: 59.5 versus 86.5). Effect stronger in patients with disease duration < 5 years (ON 45.5%/ OFF 56.7%) as compared to patients with a duration > 10 years (ON 6.3% OFF 12.4%).
MSA patients b. Some MSA/PSP patients temporarily improved. The effect was not correlated with disease severity and disease duration.
MR-tractography:
PSP patients a. PD patients, after implantation, did show a trend of steadily improvement in tractographical images in genu and peduncles.
Open Label b. MSA/PSP patients showed further reduction of tractographical images after stem cell implantation.
Venkataramana, Kumar et al. [64] Autologous MSCs 10-36 PD patients (n = 7) with an UPDRS ON/OFF score 50.6/65.0 and a mean disease duration of 14.7 yr treated with 106 MSCs/kg bodyweight in the subventricular zone UPDRS in ON/OFF:
PD patients    a. In 3/7 patients there was a stable improvement of ON/OFF scores of 38% respect 22.9% with unchanged anti-parkinsonian medication.
Open Label    b. In 3/7 patients after treatment, only marginal clinical effects were observed
Anti-parkinsonian medication significantly reduced in 2 patients.
Lee, kim et al. [63] Autologous MSCs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 Patients with Cognitive intact MSA-C (with UMSARS scores between 30 to 50) UMSARS score
a. MSCs-treated patients showed a reduced* increase of UMSARS score compared to placebo treated patients.
MSA patients 1. Placebo group: Intravenous or intra-arterial placebo (n = 17) b. Intra-arterial application of MSCs was complicated with some MRI-detectable ischemic lesions
Cognitive functions:
Significantly* worsened in the placebo, but not in the MSCs-treated patients
Placebo controlled 2. MSCs group: 4×106 MSCs intravenously or intra-arterial (n = 14) MRI and FDG PET:
Showed significantly increased* gray cerebral cortical areas respectively more decreased cortical and cerebellar glucose metabolism in placebo-treated, as compared to MSCs-treated patients.
  1. Abbreviations: MSCs Mesenchymal stem cells, MSA multiple system atrophy, MSA-C multiple system atrophy, cerebellar type, PSP progressive supranuclear palsy, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, UMSARS unified MSA rating scale, FDG PET fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.