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Table 2 Behavior of microglia in different conditions

From: The changing phenotype of microglia from homeostasis to disease

Conditions Microglia function
In steady state
Healthy resting state Surveillance, homeostasis [85] Fixed cell and motile processes, minimal expression of cell surface markers and release of cytokines and chemokines, not involved in Phagocytosis
In disease state
Neuroprotective
Axotomy of the optic nerve Efficient clearance of myelin debris [41]
Traumatic injury Clear glutamate without evoking inflammatory mediators [44]
Ischemia Synthesis of tumor necrosis factor, engulfment of harmful invading neutrophil granulocytes [86]
Alzheimer’s Disease Internalize and degrade amyloid beta [87]
Multiple sclerosis Secrete soluble mediators that trigger neural repair and usually contribute to the creation of an environment conductive for regeneration [48]
Neurotoxic
Parkinson’s disease Releasing various kinds of noxious cytokines, reactive oxygen species [88]
Multiple sclerosis Express iNOS [89] and generate toxic ROS which might injure neurons
Alzheimer’s disease Produce of chemokines, neurotoxic cytokines and reactive oxygen an dnitrogen species that are deletrious to the CNS [90]