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Table 1 Factors that can activate microglia

From: The changing phenotype of microglia from homeostasis to disease

Substance that can activate microglia Reference
Pathological conditions
hypoxia Morigiwa et al., 2000 [51]
tumor Bosco et al., 2011[52]
Ischemic insult Hur et al., 2010 [53]
Nerve injury Maeda et al., 2010 [54]
Proteins
α-synuclein Lee et al., 2010; Su et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2005 [5557]
amyloid-beta Jana et al., 2008 [58]
fibrinogen Piers et al., 2011 [59]
Thrombin Lee et al., 2005 [60]
Tissue plasminogen activator Siao et al., 2002 [61]
Matrix protein (vitronectin, fibronectin, MMP-3) Milner et al., 2007; del Zoppo et al., 2007; Kim et al., 2005 [6264]
Chemicals
Adenosine Triphosphate Matsui et al., 2011 [65]
Toxins (MPTP, Rotenone, Paraquat) Yasuda et al., 2008; Gao et al., 2002; Wu et al., 2005 [6668]
Alchohol McClain et al., 2011 [69]
Dopamine quinone Kuhn et al., 2006 [70]
Berberine Lu et al., 2010 [71]
lipopolysacchride Jung et al., 2010; Meng et al., 2008; Xu et al., 2009 [7274]
Cytokines
TNF-α Iribarren et al., 2005 [75]
IL-6 Krady et al., 2008 [76]
IL-12 Tamakawa et al., 2004 [77]
IL-3 Natarajan et al., 2004 [78]
IFN-Υ Rozenfeld et al., 2005; Hall et al., 1999 [79, 80]
Others
gangliosides Kim et al., 2009; Min et al., 2004 [81, 82]
Kalic acid Zheng et al., 2010; Zhu et al., 2010 [83, 84]