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Table 1 The unmet needs of Parkinson's disease therapeutics

From: Norepinephrine: the next therapeutics frontier for Parkinson's disease

• Progressive worsening of all clinical features • Unpredictable immobility (freezing of gait, prolonged "off" states)
• Inadequate tremor control • Autonomic dysfunction (postural hypotension, constipation, dysphagia)
• Balance impairment (particularly retropulsive imbalance) • Sleep disturbance (fragmented sleep, rapid-eye-movement behavioral disorder)
• Postural disturbance (forward flexion) • Depression, fatigue, and apathy
• Involuntary movements with dopaminergic therapy (dyskinesia, dystonia) • Progressive cognitive decline (including impaired working memory and executive dysfunction even in the absence of dementia)