Effects of curcumin on the phosphorylation of JNKs. Effects of curcumin on the phosphorylation of JNKs in SNc. Bands corresponding to JNK3 and p-JNK3 were scanned and the intensities were represented as folds vs. saline animals. Phosphorylation of JNK3 was examined by immunoprecipitation (IP) with anti-p-JNKs antibody followed by immunoblotting (IB) with antibody against JNK3. P-JNK1/2 was examined by IB with antibody against p-JNK1/2. The protein levels of JNK1/2 and J NK3 were examined by immunoblotting with anti-JNK1/2 and anti-JNK3 antibodies. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD and as folds vs. respective saline groups. aP < 0.05 vs. saline; bP <0.05 vs. MPTP groups (n = 6 mice).