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Table 1 Summary of possible premotor PD biomarkers

From: Premotor biomarkers for Parkinson's disease - a promising direction of research

  Existing Biomakers Potential Biomakers Candidate biomakers
Uric acid a-sysnuclein DJ-1 SPECT fMRI PET Aβ42 tau
Blood 74–76 63 82      
CSF   53, 54, 56, 59 53,79     130 130
Saliva   69,71       
Skin   67       
Glucose Binding       92   
Iron      100    
Structural Brain Elements      97–99    
DAT Binding     88–90, 93, 94